This is an amazing finger loop braid from the 14th Century! I had no idea anything like this had been made by European loop braiders (see footnote about kute-uchi braids*).
This dense, 10-loop cord is basically two square braids that are completely enmeshed and
interlaced through each other down the axis of the braid. Each component braid keeps its own loops–the loops never migrate from one “sub-braid” to the other. If you set up one with green and white loops, and the other with red and blue loops, you’ll get vertical bands of green/white and vertical bands of red/blue, but the two color groupings won’t mix together (making this another way to get lengthwise striping in a braid).
Together the 2 enmeshed braids form one compact, larger, square or roundish braid with 8 ridges as compared to a regular square braid’s 4 ridges.
The braid is very firm and solid. It’s nice as a bracelet–has a lot of body, doesn’t sag or drape. Another thing that’s nice about this braid is how different it looks from different angles. This is hard to convey in a photo. It’s great for a bracelet–the bracelet’s pattern seems to shift as your arm moves. I purposely twisted some of the braids in the picture above, to show them from different angles.
This two-worker 14th C. braid isn’t recorded in the surviving braiding treatises from the 15th and 17th Centuries. It’s known only from one artifact–the handle / strap of a small ecclesiastical textile called a Sudarium, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, originally from the Cathedral of Halberstadt in Germany. [This braid is one of several showing that European loop braiding was already highly developed long before the earliest known loop braiding manuscripts, cf Speiser and Boutrup's European Loop Braiding parts I-IV.]
Apparently a sudarium is the linen cloth that hangs from a “crozier”–the crook or cross at the top of a bishop’s ceremonial staff– for the bishop to wipe his hands on, presumably so he won’t get the staff dirty(?). Luckily, this braid came to Noémi Speiser’s attention.
I only just recently paid attention to her description of this braid—on pp. 66-67 of Old English Pattern Books for Loop Braiding. No photo, but in the Victoria and Albert’s online “search the collection” I was able to find two photos of sudariums (sudarii?), the one above is the right era, so it may be the one in question. Not enough detail of the braid at the top to be able to tell for sure. (I think I am allowed to use the photo here, going by the V&A guidelines, but no 3rd party reproductions are allowed, so please if you want a copy, go to the V&A and search the collection for ‘sudarium‘.)
After 3 tries, I got the colors to work out the way Speiser described them. In the lower picture below, the knots are where I started over with a different arrangement of the same loops, trying to get the correct color-pattern. I finally succeed to the right of the rightmost knot–first the Sudarium braid’s pattern, and then the variation Speiser suggests trying, where no transfers are turned (the stripey part).
The directions made sense, but what with trying to adapt them to my own barely-figured-out method, I somehow kept getting the color-order wrong at first… I like those “mistake” patterns, actually!
Speiser’s suggested 2-person method is very unusual: Two braiders work together, each making a standard 5-loop square braid, but not exchanging loops to connect their braids, as in most multiple-worker loop braids. Instead they take turns doing each braiding cycle through/ between the other braider’s outstretched loops.
The way I picture it, the two braiders would have to stand (closely) next to each other, with their adjacent arms overlapped in some way, and take turns braiding.
[update: I got to see this in action at Braids 2012 in Joy Boutrup's loop braiding class! It was very fun to see -- Joy had Apple and Mally, the most experienced team-braiders there, doing this braid--the way it is described above, which Joy believes would have been the way it was originally done. From what I remember, one braided more vertically and the other more horizontally (or else both were slanted a bit in opposite directions) so that one set of arm movements could open and close between the other set. Like two people taking turns clapping hands between the other person's clapping hands.]
However, this is actually the alternative, easier method Speiser suggests for two braiders, not the one she thinks was actually used in the 14th C.
Here’s the method that she says was more likely the one they used (by analogy with a less amazing but just as oddly made braid that is described in the 15th C manuscripts**):
Each component square braid would be made by the left hand of one braider and the right hand of the other braider braiding together! Still with alternate cycles of each braid being done between the outstretched loops of the other braid. The braiders would probably stand the same way–adjacent arms overlapping.
Both 2-braider methods would work to produce the braid, but the second way would require even more coordination between the two braiders. It would probably look like a strange partner dance with a lot of arm movements, or two people doing a silent “Miss Mary Mack” type clapping game while making Cats-Cradle string figures.
Speiser suggests one method by which a solo braider could braid this Sudarium braid,*** which I’m sure would work, but I stuck with my basic braiding practice of using all my available fingers (including thumbs) before resorting to doubling or tripling loops on any fingers.
The way I set it up, the first square braid’s loops are on the upper fingers (including the thumb) of my left hand; and the lower fingers of my right hand. Those fingers all work together, and do a left and a right loop transfer (v-fell). The second component square braid’s moves happen next, in mirror-image fashion: the upper fingers of my right hand and the lower fingers of my left hand work as a unit to make two loop transfers with their loops. (Now this all seems clear to me, but it was very murky at first!)
The purple and white braid above has 16 loops but the same basic structure. One of its component braids has 8 purple/white bicolor loops, the other component braid has 4 purple and 4 white single-color loops. (Bonded nylon beading cord.) I really like the way the 2 different patterns turned out when combined into one braid. I’m bending the braid in the photo to try to give an idea of how the pattern looks from different sides. (****see footnote re 12- and 16-loop variations)
Another interesting thing about the Sudarium braid: Two surfaces of each component square braid are visible on the combined braid. These 2 surfaces are the ones that would have been the sides of the component square braids, if each one were a separate 5-loop square braid. (the ‘top’ and ‘bottom’ surfaces being the ones that would face to and away from the braider.) Actually, the top and bottom surfaces of the component square braids are also visible, but they are harder to notice. That’s because they are effectively split down the middle by the side surface of the other component braid. So they end up looking like a narrow border on the two edges of any side of the Sudarium braid.
I like that the component braids’ side surfaces are emphasized, because it’s the side surfaces of a square braid that show those nice chevron shapes (in braids with single/mono-color loops, as opposed to bicolor loops)–I’ve always secretly considered them the good sides of a square braid, compared to the upper and lower surfaces.
This braid is the best example I have of the V-shaped chevrons that form on the sides of square braids. These chevrons are from 2 single-color loops in dark pink–the other 6 loops in this sub-braid are all bicolor loops of purple and light pink. On the upper and lower surfaces of this component braid, the dark pink loops would have shown as “zigs,” rather than chevrons (split down the center in the photo below). The other sub-braid is of single-color loops in dull gold and dull silver—those chevrons tend to blend together.
In the following braid, the two sub-braids would have chevrons on all 4 of their surfaces, not just the sides–that’s because each one started out with a color arrangement like that of the Medieval 8-loop braid called ‘lace dawns’. White and orange loops for one, and white and turquoise for the other. A short way into the braid I rearranged the loops so each component sub-braid had exactly the same colors: 2 turquoise, 2 white, 2 orange, and 2 white loops (in that order). If you look close, you can see the pattern change –a couple of inches below the loop start, on the lower right of the photo.
The braid in the center below is of 16 loops, with one of its component braids having pale purple and khaki single-color loops, and the other component braid having bicolor loops of pink and navy. (Embroidery floss)
The longer braid lying around it is of 12 loops of bonded nylon beading cord. One of its sub-braids has black and white bicolor loops, the other sub-braid has gold and turquoise bicolor loops.
Wow, a totally new braid! Thank you yet again to Noémi. Happily I am still nowhere near working my way through all the braids in OEPBforLB.
P.S.—what I call a “surface” of the braid is a little misleading! They don’t exactly have simple sides or surfaces the way a tabletop is a surface. It’s the 4 ridges (corners) of a simple square braid that are its most basic units. Each “surface” is really a partial view of two adjacent ridges.
[p.p.s.—since making this post, I found out it's not necessary for the 2 component sub-braids to have the same size thread, or even the same number of loops. You will have a lot more take-up on the sub-braid with fewer loops. The braid ends up being flatter, with the smaller sub-braid at the center of the wider surface. —Ingrid, 8-4-11]
* There are Japanese hand-held loop braids (Kute-Uchi) with a similar appearance that I first came across a year or so ago in a workshop taught by Kumihimo master Makiko Tada (also here). Up to then I had assumed that loop braiding would produce the same types of braids, whether loops were held on fingers or around the whole hand. Aside from some great braids, I also learned in that workshop that there are some types of Kute-uchi braids and moves that aren’t easily done with finger-held loops (the opposite is true as well, a good example is “unorthodox” braids—their braiding moves are only easy to accomplish with finger-held loops.)
Masako Kinoshita, editor of LMBRIC, is the one who rediscovered the lost art of Kute-Uchi and proved that it preceded and led to Kumihimo.
[my recent kute-uchi post includes a photo of the kute-uchi braids that are similar to this Sudarium braid]
** The similarly-made braid notated in the 15th C. manuscripts is a 2-person, doubled version of the “Spiral Braid” or lace bend rounde. It is the “Bend of 16 bows for 2 fellows” described on p.64 of OEPBforLB. (From the Tollemache and Harley documents, though according to Speiser the Tollemache description is flawed)
*** Noémi Speiser’s one-person method incorporates a kute-uchi-style “outside-around” loop transfer that I’ve only seen once before with finger-held loops, on Phiala’s String Page. Phiala (aka Sarah Goslee) also uses it as part of a 10-loop, 1-worker method for doing a 2-worker braid—her single-braider method for braiding “the 2 person version of the round lace” (I call this a “10-loop double braid”), using 8 fingers, no thumbs.
**** Re 12- and 16-loop versions: With this Sudarium braid structure, even-no.-of-loop sub-braids can end up having more balanced-looking ridges in the final braid than odd-no.-of-loop sub-braids. Because of that I’ve been making more 12 and 16-loop versions than 10 and 14-loop versions. This is not in general true for even-no.-of-loop braids, in fact usually the opposite is true. Even-number-of-loop braids inherently have unequal sized ridges. But in this braid, if the bigger ridges are placed correctly, they balance out a different imbalance: the slightly narrower ridges that inevitably occur on one or the other side of the sudarium braid (depending on which direction the loops are turned).