Guide to LMBRIC

This is my personal guide to Masako Kinoshita’s Loop-Manipulation Braiding Research and Information Center news, issues 1-13, plus its associated Illustrated Instruction series. This guide is like a table-of-contents for each issue, rather than an index. L-MBRIC’s own index is at the bottom of LMBRIC no. 13. More about L-MBRIC and this guide in endnote below.

Links will open in a separate window, so this index can remain available.


L-M BRIC home page
Introductory page, with links to each of the thirteen L-MBRIC issues. (No links to the Illustrated Instruction series.)
Also has a link to this bibliography of loop braiding resources (dated 2002, revised 2004 and 2005)

The contents of issues #1 to 13 are briefly itemized below the following two stand-alone Illustrated Instruction issues.

Note: Most LMBRIC issues and some of the Illustrated Instruction issues have a separate page of references/bibliography notes. I include a link to the reference page immediately after the list of articles in each issue.

L-MBRIC’s own index is located near the bottom of this page: LMBRIC no. 13

Japanese and English versions: A link to the Japanese language version can be found in the upper menu of each L-MBRIC article, click on “Nihongo-ban” in the English issue’s upper menu. However, the Illustrated Instruction issues do not have links to their Japanese language equivalents, so in this guide I have included a link to the Japanese version immediately following the link to the English version for each of the Illustrated Instruction issues.


Two important Illustrated Instruction issues that don’t seem to be connected to a particular issue of LMBRIC:

Illustrated Instruction Series, Section 2 – on Side-by-side Interconnection of Two BraidsJapanese version 日本語版
This section deals with interconnection of two braids by two braiders who sit side-by-side.
“Connecting the braids at the nearest selvedges yields a braid twice as wide as the original one.”
[NOTE WELL!] “If connected at both the nearest and the farthest [edges], you have a tubular braid…”
Three instructions:
1. Connecting the two braids by loop interchange at nearest neighbors using 10 loops.
2. Connecting the two braids by loop interchange at [both nearest and] farthest selvedges, using 10 loops – tubular couvert or compound braid when done with bicolor loops – color photos of examples.
3. Connecting the two braids by loop passing between nearest neighbors, 9-loop braid.

[Aside: The third type of loop exchange between two braiders has so far only been recorded from Sulawesi, Indonesia – see LMBRIC issues 8, 9, 12). It’s used for making two-worker braids of an odd number of loops, though theoretically it can also be used for an even number. I use a variant of this type of exchange when making 9- and 10-loop double braids as a solo braider, because it makes the braiding much quicker than when a ‘normal’ loop-exchange is used.]

Illustrated Instruction Series, Intro to KUTE-UCHI Basic ProceduresJapanese version 日本語版
This is the most complete on-line reference to Kute-Uchi (as far as I can tell, up to when I am posting this!), with color photos of Masako Kinoshita’s reconstructions of historic braids. (also see Ill.Instr. issue 7 below on single-faced Kikko kute-uchi braids)
MATERIALS; Preparation of the loops and kute [handles]; FOUR MODES OF LOOP TRANSFERS – A,B,C,D; PRACTICAL ADVICE: How to transfer a loop; BRAIDS RECONSTRUCTED FROM THE EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY RECORDS: 2-step procedures [having two main braiding moves, like square braids]; and 4-step procedures [having 4 main braiding moves, by which a single braider can create very novel braids, for example two square braids or 4 thin flat braids made simultaneously; a “double” braid of two square braids joined together vertically; the genji-uchi braid; more]; SUPPLEMENTARY BASIC MANIPULATIONS F and G [Four ‘extra’ moves (E,F,G,Z) were not explicitly taught in the old Japanese manuscripts, but deduced by Kinoshita from examining actual surviving braid artifacts – here she describes two of them.]; Notes and references.


L-MBRIC no. 1, 1998 – Loop braiding historical background and references, incl 1st C. BCE bronze Chinese figures loop braiding (more details in LMBRIC no.3), medieval European fresco (more on this fresco in LMBRIC no.4), illustration from India showing Method 2 (V-fell); Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series, 1 Introduction to Finger-held loopsJapanese version 日本語版
Materials used for braiding; Preparation of the loops; Finger-held L-M and Hand-held L-M; the three distinctive methods in the F-H L-M; Terms used in illustrated instructions; Braids with an Orthodox Pattern; Braids with an Unorthodox Pattern, FIVE STEPS OF F-H L-M procedure; Track-Plans; Notes and references.


L-M BRIC no. 2, 1999 – Panama, Columbia, Siberia; Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 2Japanese version 日本語版
Instructions for braids in L-MBRIC issue 2:
7-LOOP SPIRIT BRIDGE; Burial String TYPE I of Cuna Indian in Colombia (5-loop square braid); Burial String TYPE II of Cuna Indian in Colombia; UO No. 1 [Unorthodox braid no.1] using method #1; using method #2; Closure string of a jacket of the Khanty tribe of Siberia – method 1, method 2.


L-M BRIC no. 3, 2000 – ‘Fingerloop’ Braids from the 12th – 15th-c. Dump Sites in London, UK.; L-M BRAIDING in China from the First Century BC (bronze figures); L-M Braiding of THAI Minority People the KARENS and the AKHAS; “OLD ENGLISH PATTERN BOOKS FOR LOOP BRAIDING” by NOÉMI SPEISER; note 7); Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 3Japanese version 日本語版
(Supplemental basic info to what was covered in Issue 1)
Track plans and hand diagrams for four more 5-loop basic braids.


L-M BRIC no. 4, 2001 – Lace as a loop braiding technique, new openwork braid manuscripts found, one in German; [see also photo of a Indonesian loop-braided lace insertion for a shirt (made by three braiders working together) in L-M BRIC no. 9]; 13th C. fresco: the ‘Haus zur Kunkel (House of Distaff)’ in Constance, Germany, shows two women apparently loop braiding (shown also in LMBRIC no.1)–new information re translation of old German word ‘dringen’ in fresco; Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 4Japanese version 日本語版
L-M Braiding as Lace-Making Techniques:
The basic two procedures used for making Katheren Wheele, etc; The Katheren Wheele and Das Lindwurm Portlein;


L-M BRIC no.5, 2002 – 2 types of Single-Course Twining made by loops – ‘woven’-type, and SCOT (single-course oblique twining); The Hunzas of northern Pakistan make an 8-ridge Type 1 braid for the edge trimming of a cap… they also make 10-ridge braids using all ten fingers; SCOT Braids from Fifth-century Japanese Burial Mounds by Mari Omura et al; The Yaos in Thailand..braids used for edge trimmings of caps, clothes, bags and bridal saddle blankets…also for button loops; Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 5Japanese version 日本語版
1. Loop-twined Edge Trimming Braid for a cap used by the Hunza People; 2. Loop-Manipulation Procedure for Making SCOT (single course oblique twining); 3.  The Yao‘s f-h l-b method: Palms-up and operating with the ring finger


L-M BRIC no.6, 2003 – L-m braids ca. 1630-40, Found at Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen (link to separately hosted article); Family Tradition of L-M Braiding Kept in Aomori, Japan by Mrs. Kumeda (finger-held loop braiding, not hand-held);  Early 19th-c.Loop-braiding in Egypt-picture with braiding stand; discussion and images of other beater stands; Loop-Braiding Text from Karlsruhe, Germany; loop braiding in Finland; Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 6Japanese version 日本語版
Braids on Frederik III’s gown; MRS. KUMEDA’S finger-held loop-braiding method;   Karlsruhe Document Braids : 1st group = square and flat twill braids; 2nd group = 4-loop square or round braids in two patterns “Corkscrew” and “Straight columns” (same structure as NARABI KAKUYATSU of the “Genji” family in KUMIHIMO)


L-M BRIC no. 7, 2004 – Bronze Age loop braid found in Middle East archaeological site; Fragments of Tortoise Shell Design Braids Proving the Practice of the Procedure Proposed by N. Speiser; Tortoise-shell-pattern (kikko) braids; Braids on Relic Purses in Sion, Switzerland (unusual loop exchange); 17th-century specimen found fr Denmark or Northern Germany; Florentine fresco shows loop-manipulation warp-twining; Edge Trimmings on the Llangorse Textile from Wales – Tablet Woven or Loop Braided (2-loop braids)? Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 7Japanese version 日本語版
Single-face Tortoise-shell Design Braids (single-faced Kikko braids): 3 different loop-braiding methods (kute-uchi), also references to kumihimo (stand-and-bobbin) methods, as well as pictures of double-faced kikko.


L-M BRIC no. 8, 2005 – Braiding Instructions Found in a 17th-C. Printed Book: “Nature Unbowelled” aka “the Serene”; Unorthodox braid patterns in English records; Sulawesi loop braiding, part 1 of 3 (cont. in issue 9); Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 8Japanese version 日本語版
Some two-person braids from the newly-discovered Serene (‘Nature unbowelled’) manuscripts.


L-M BRIC no. 9, 2006 – Sulawesi braiding part 2 of 3 (part 3 in issue 12): funerary headbands, pull strings and carry straps for bags, pouches, dagger sheaths, cord for beadwork adormnment/accessories, decorative trim and insertions on clothing, first report of current-day 2-person braiding, 2-person 9-loop braids, 3-person braided lacework artifact, 2 people braiding an extra-long loop braid, purses;
Article (link) by Joy Boutrup on the braided seal strings on a 1590 Danish royal marriage document; Report from Quinghai, Northwestern China 7-9th C. “…braid trimmed over seam lines of a slipper”; L-M braiding in Ecuador and in Ethiopia; Braid making for a replica of a Japanese national treasure laced armor (1185-1333 CE) by Chizuru Nishioka – used hand-held loop braiding, using a braiding frame for providing “extra hands”; Report from Frieda Sorber: Braids on a 5th-7th C. Central Asian purse, a European loop braided seal string from 1253, loop braiding documented in Morocco and Tunisia, illustration of two women loop braiding seen in an old Greek weaving book, Turkish example seen; Report by Mari Omura on the international Symposium “Handling Carriage Horses like Braiding” held in conjunction with The Gangoji Temple Special Exhibition of the same title (see LMBRIC no. 10 and 11 for more details on recent historical findings on loop braiding in Asia); Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 9Japanese version 日本語版
L-M Braiding in Sulawesi Island, Indonesia [relates to L-MBRIC issues 8 , 9, and 12]
1. Sulawesi basic method 2 (V-fell) loop braiding, for making the “trinity”: divided, square, and flat braids.
2. Braids used in Sulawesi as carry straps and edgings for bags.
a. Carry-strap has solid area that divides into two thinner braids at each end. These are threaded through the wide, flat edging braid along the upper edge of the bag.
b. The wide, flat braided edging is braided with multiple short slits through which the braided carry-cord/ handles can be threaded. [Instructions for both a and b, and photo which can be enlarged to show details – great bag design, similar to certain medieval European purses, but with additional element of an edging braided with holes for drawstrings to be threaded through. Instructions are not necessary if one knows how to make the braids, just looking at the photo is enough. (more Sulawesi bag illustrations can be seen in L-M BRIC issues 8 and 9)]; Notes and references.


L-M BRIC no. 10, 2007 – Guajiro [Wayuu] loop braiding (Colombia and Venezuela): 12 or more braids, indications that the Wayuu make multiple-braider braids;  ‘Kaku-hira-uchi Braid Fragments,’a pair of unusual Japanese national treasure braids from 1185-1333 just revealed to the public; Loop-Manipulation Braids on a Fifteenth-century Purse; Xi – Lace-like [braided] Fabric Fragments from the Warring Period (402 BC-221 BC) tombs in Hupei province, China. [structure = plain oblique twining/ POT]; Modern Attempt at Making a Medieval Fingerloop-Braiding Booklet; Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 10Japanese version 日本語版GUAJIRO [Wayuu] BRAIDING TECHNIQUES;


L-M BRIC no. 11, 2008 – Finnish Finger-Held Loop-Manipulation Braiding Operated by the Small Finger [including 9-loop braids made using thumbs as well as fingers]; Mari Omura: Braids in Chinese Classics And Excavated Braids from the Warring States Chu Cemetery [note 11]; Yi people loop-manipulation braid [needlecase], Sechuan, China; Idiosyncratic Appearances of Braids with an Unorthodox Pattern; Young People Enjoying Braiding. Notes and references.

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 11Japanese version 日本語版 – Fingerloop Braiding with 9 (and more) Loops, Using Method 2.
[written by me – more current versions of this photo-tutorial that also include video are now on my blog: 9-loop square and flat braids, and 11-loop square and flat braids.]


L-M BRIC no. 12, 2009 – Initial Observations on “The Nun’s Book”-a new 17th C discovery; Sulawesi Loop Braiding part 3: Men’s Funerary Headbands, ‘giving-taking’ loop exchange between two co-operating braiders using 9 loops; Notes and references

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 12Japanese version 日本語版 – “A lace vice of three colours” [tubular twined loop braid] Instructions by Joy Boutrup from recipe no. 66, page 437 Natura Exenterata, 1655, British Library, E. 1560.778.c.3 a.k.a.the Serene document


L-M BRIC no. 13, 2010 – L-M in Yao Country, Yunan, China; Book review of European Loop Braiding: Investigations and Results Parts I and II; Index for L-M BRIC News, no.s 1-12.
[no notes/references section in issue 13]

Illustrated Instruction Series Issue 13Japanese version 日本語版

Three Warp-twining Braids Methods: 4-loop parallel-twine square braid from Karlsruhe, Germany. (L-MBRIC News No. 6); Green Dorge – 6-loop braid fr. the Tollemache Book of Secrets, #38; Bridle – 8-loop braid of the Guajiro people of Columbia; Analyses of the braids

[Aside: I corresponded with Masako Kinoshita about her suggestion in this illustrated instruction issue that the even-no.-of-loop Grene Dorge and Bridle braids would be more symmetrical if done with an odd number of loops, as I had found the opposite to be true. Her suggestion had been based on theory only – after trying it both ways she agreed with me on this. More about this in the footnotes to my blog-post about the 14th C. “Sudarium braid“.]



The guide above is my personal index to L-M BRIC and its associated Illustrated Instruction Series. Loop-Manipulation Braiding Research and Information Center news is Masako Kinoshita’s 13-issue online compendium/ annual newsletter on loop braiding worldwide history and practice, in Japanese and English versions. The Illustrated Instruction Series are a somewhat parallel series of how-to notes and articles. Most, but not all, of the Illustrated Instruction issues are associated with a particular LMBRIC issue. (A link to the relevant Illustrated Instruction issue is usually located somewhere near the end of each LMBRIC issue.)

Masako Kinoshita published these two series on a yearly basis from 1998 to 2010. It’s an amazing fountain of information about loop braiding practice and history worldwide. All the issues have interesting information, much of it not available anywhere else. The two Illustrated Instruction issues on Kute-Uchi are especially important, as there is so little information about kute-uchi available anywhere, outside of Masako Kinoshita’s very hard-to-find and expensive book on it, which is almost entirely in Japanese. But even many of the articles on European loop braiding contain information that is hard to find anywhere else, along with references to the often obscure sources… However, unless you are happy just to browse, the content of LMBRIC is rather hard to navigate. There is no table of contents in the beginning of any issue, or on the introductory/ home page (www.lmbric.net). None of the articles has its own url, you can only bookmark a whole issue.

My guide above simply itemizes the contents of each issue, so I can see at a glance what’s covered in any given issue…I itemize each Illustrated Instruction issue immediately after the L-MBRIC issue it relates to.

However, two important Illustrated Instruction issues are “stand-alone”, with no obvious connection to a particular LMBRIC issue. (making them very hard to find from within L-MBRIC itself.) I list them first — that is, following the link to LMBRIC’s introductory/ home page but before Issue #1.

There’s now a L-MBRIC index near the bottom of LMBRIC no. 13 that lists all the articles in date order. Articles are listed by title. Bear in mind that the link doesn’t lead directly to that article, but rather to the beginning of the issue it was published in, so you may need to scroll down to find the article you want.